Milky Way Galaxy Atlas





Wolf Rayet
Class



53,000 K to 200,000 K
94,940 F to 359,540 F


20 to 74

2 to 25




O
Class



30,000 K to 52,000 K
53,540 F to 93,140 F


16 to 25

6.6 to 10




B
Class



10,000 K to 29,999 K
17,540 F to 53,538 F


2.1 to 15

1.8 to 6.5




A
Class



7,500 K to 9,999 K
13,040 F to 17,538 F


1.4 to 2.1

1.4 to 1.7




F
Class



6,000 K to 7,499 K
10,340 F to 13,038 F


1.04 to 1.3

1.15 to 1.3



G
Class
(Our Sun)



5,200 K to 5,999 K
8,900 F to 10,338 F

10 Million K to 15 Million K
18 Million F to 27 Million F

0.80 to 1.03

0.96 to 1.14




K
Class



3,700 K to 5,199 K
6,200 F to 8,898 F


0.45 to 0.70

0.70 to 0.95




M
Class



2,400 K to 3,699 K
3,860 F to 6,198 F


0.08 to 0.44

0.69 or Less




L
Class



1,300 K to 2,000 K
1,880 F to 1,880 F



51 to 80 Jupiter Masses

Similar to Jupiter




T
Class



700 K to 1,299 K
800 F to 1,878 F


26 to 50 Jupiter Masses

Similar to Jupiter




Y
Class



440 K to 699 K
332 F to 798 F


9 to 25 Jupiter Masses

Similar to Jupiter




Sub BD
Class



225 K to 439 K
-54 F to 330 F


3 to 8 Jupiter Masses

Similar to Jupiter



D
Class
(White Dwarf)



4,000 K to 150,000 K
6,740 F to 269,540 F

2.5 Million K to 1 Billion K
4.5 Million F to 1.8 Billion F

0.17 to 1.33

8,700 Miles




Neutron Star
Class


600,000 K to 1,000,000 K
1,079,540 F to
1,799,540 F

1 Trillion K
1.8 Trillion F

1.1 to 3.3

12.4 Miles




Black Hole
Class

Black Hole Class

0 K to 2.7 K
-459 F to -454 F

Unknown or
Not Possible

3.8 to 40 Billion

15 to 146.6 Billion Miles









Asteroidan
Class

Asteroidan Class Planet

0.00015 or Less

0.080 or Less

Ceres
No atmosphere
Rocky Surface
Not Habitable




Plutonian
Class

Plutonian Class Planet

0.00016 to 0.005

0.081 to 0.20

Pluto
Possible atmosphere
Rocky Surface
Not Habitable




Mercurian
Class



0.006 to 0.10

0.21 to 0.49
Possible atmosphere
Rocky Surface
Not Habitable




Sub Terran
Class



0.11 to 0.50

0.50 to 0.79
Possible atmosphere
Rocky Surface
Could be Habitable




Terran
Class


0.51 to 1.99

0.80 to 1.29

Venus and Earth
Significant atmosphere
Rocky Surface
Could be Habitable




Super Terran
Class


2.00 to 5.99

1.30 to 1.60

Tau Ceti b
Significant atmosphere
Rocky Surface
Could be Habitable




SubNeptunian
Class


6.00 to 9.99

1.70 to 2.99

None
Thick atmosphere
No Surface
Not Habitable




Neptunian
Class


10.00 to 50.00

3.00 to 4.00
Very Thick atmosphere
No Surface
Not Habitable




Jovian
Class


51.00 to 5,00.00

4.10 to 27.00
Ultra Thick atmosphere
No Surface
Not Habitable




For a Planet to be considered "Earth-Like", it must meet the following 17 criteria. These criteria in no way indicate that other planets that are not "Earth-like", are not habitable. A planet that
is not "Earth-like" may still be habitable. These rules give us a framework to determine how closely a planet resembles Earth, and thus whether life as we know it could inhabit such a planet.

[Criteria 1] A Planet must be located within the Habitable Zone of its parent star (the area where liquid water has the potential to exist)
[Criteria 2] A Planet must not be tidally locked with its parent star
[Criteria 3] A Planet must not be subjected to strong or intense solar flares from its parent star (flares must be moderate or less)
[Criteria 4] A Planet must be a Terran Size Class
[Criteria 5] A Planet must have a Terran Mass between 51% and 159%
[Criteria 6] A Planet must have an Average Density Range between 3.50 and 7.50
[Criteria 7] A Planet must have surface gravity between 51% to 159%
[Criteria 8] A Planet must have a Diameter between 6,334 to 10,214 Miles
[Criteria 9] A Planet must have an Atmospheric Pressure between 80% and 120% that of Earth
[Criteria 10] A Planet must have a breathable atmosphere like Earth
[Criteria 11] A Planet must have an average global temperature between 45 and 95 Degrees Fahrenheit (Warm Climate)
[Criteria 12] A Planet must have liquid water on its surface (given sufficient atmospheric pressure)
[Criteria 13] A Planet must have diverse rocky land.
[Criteria 14] A Planet must have an Axial Tilt between 19.0 and 27.9
[Criteria 15] A Planet must have an Orbit Eccentrity between 0.0120 and 0.0210
[Criteria 16] A Planet must have a sufficient magnetic field
[Criteria 17] A Planet must have a sufficient ozone layer.










Earth Related



0.51 to 0.64

6,334 to 6,729 Miles

3.50 to 3.99

None




Earth Similar



0.65 to 0.79

6,730 to 7,125 Miles

4.00 to 4.49

None




Earth-Like



0.80 to 0.89

7,126 to 7,521 Miles

4.50 to 4.99

None




Earth Analog



0.90 to 0.97

7,522 to 7,839 Miles

5.00 to 5.34

Trappist f (Mass)




Earth Twin



0.98 to 1.02


7,840 to 7,996 Miles

5.35 to 5.65

Earth , Trappist e (Density)




Earth Analog



1.03 to 1.10

7,997 to 8,314 Miles

5.66 to 6.00

None




Earth-Like



1.11 to 1.20

8,315 to 8,710 Miles

6.01 to 6.50

Trappist g (Mass)




Earth Similar



1.21 to 1.35

8,711 to 9,422 Miles

6.51 to 7.00

None




Earth Related



1.36 to 1.59

9,423 to 10,214 Miles

7.01 to 7.50

None










Inferno
1,201 F +

Inferno Jovian Planet

Inferno Neptunian Planet

Inferno Super Terran Planet

Inferno Terran Planet

Inferno Sub Terran Planet

Inferno Mercurian Planet

Inferno Plutonian Planet



Janssen, Saffar


Extremely Hot
801 F to 1,200 F

Extremely Hot Jovian Planet


Extremely Hot Super Terran Planet

Extremely Hot Terran Planet

Extremely Hot Sub Terran Planet

Extremely Hot Mercurian Planet

Extremely Hot Plutonian Planet



Venus, 61 Virginis b




Very Hot
401 F to 800 F

Very Hot Jovian Planet

Very Hot Neptunian Planet

Very Hot Super Terran Planet

Very Hot Terran Planet

Very Hot Sub Terran Planet

Very Hot Mercurian Planet

Very Hot Plutonian Planet

Very Hot Asteroidan Planet

Ross 780 b, Thestias




Hot
96 F to 400 F

Hot Jovian Planet

Hot Neptunian Planet

Hot Super Terran Planet

Hot Terran Planet

Hot Sub Terran Planet



Hot Plutonian Planet

Hot Asteroidan Planet

Mercury, Tau Ceti e




Warm
45 F to 95 F


Warm Neptunian Planet

Warm Super Terran Planet







Warm Plutonian Planet



Earth, Ross 128 b, Gliese 163 d




Cold
44 F to -200 F

Cold Jovian Planet

Cold Neptunian Planet


Cold Terran Planet



Cold Mercurian Planet

Cold Plutonian Planet



Mars, Proxima b , Kepler 438,
Trappist f, Kepler 186




Freezing
-201 F and Below




Freezing Terran Planet

Freezing Sub Terran Planet

Freezing Mercurian Planet




 

 


 





Planet with Moon

Terran Planet with Moon

This planet has one or
more moons orbiting it

A moon can also be
termed a natural satellite

The Moon stabilizes the
Earth's rotation slightly




Planet with Rings

Jovian Planet with Rings

This planet has a
ring system orbiting it

None

Saturn's ring particles are made of water ice and rock





Planet in Habitable Zone


Orbits its star at a distance where it could have liquid
water given it has enough
atmospheric pressure

The Habitable Zone is also
known as the Goldilocks Zone

Earth, Ross 128 b
The Sun's Habitable Zone
ranges from 0.9504 AU
to 1.6760 AU





Strongly Radiated Planet
in the Habitable Zone


Orbits its star in the habitable
zone, but is bombarded by
strong radiation and flares from
its parent star

NA

None
Solar flares can strip off the atmosphere and
radiate the surface





Intensely Radiated Planet
in the Habitable Zone


Orbits its star in the habitable
zone, but is bombarded by
intense radiation and flares from
its parent star

NA
Solar flares can strip off the atmosphere and
radiate the surface









Astronomical Unit

AU

Average distance from
the Earth to the Sun


93 Million Miles


The distance from the Earth
to the Sun is 1.000 AU



Light Year

LY

The distance that light travels
in One Earth Year


5.88 Trillion Miles


The distance from our Solar System to
Proxima Centauri is 4.2421 LY










Star

Has enough mass to sustain Thermonuclear Fusion

13 Jupiter Masses +



Sol




Rogue Planet

Does not orbit a Star.
0.002 Earth Mass
to
12 Jupiter Mass

?

None




Major Planet
Orbits a Star, has enough mass to be round, and has cleared
the neighborhood of its orbit
0.006 Earth Mass
to
12 Jupiter Mass






Dwarf Planet
Orbits a Star, has enough mass to be round, but has not
cleared the neighborhood of its orbit
0.00016 Earth Mass
to
0.005 Earth Mass



Pluto, Ceres




Spherical Moon

Orbits a Planet and has enough mass to be round

?



Luna (The Moon)




Irregular Moon

Orbits a Planet but does not have
enough mass to be round

?



Deimos (Orbits Mars)




Asteroid

Orbits a Star but does not have
enough mass to be round

?



Toutatis












Weeks or Less

Green

?

?

Luna (The Moon)




Months

Orange

?

?




Years

Yellow

?

?

Pluto




Decades

Red

?

?

?




Centuries

Blue

?

?

?




Millenia

Purple

?

?











0

Stone Age
Counting, Oral Tradition, Fingers, and Sticks
Skis, Dogsleds, Rafts, Canoes, and Animals
Wooden and Stone Weapons, Fur Hides,
Muscle Power, and Dogs
First Aid, Herbal Remedies, Agriculture,
Runners, Caves, Huts




1

Bronze Age
Arithmetic, Writing, Abacus, Horseback
Wheels and Sails

Bow, Sword, Leather and Bronze Armor
Donkeys, Oxen, Water Power
Fermentation, Animal Husbandry,
Long Distance Signaling, Towns




2

Iron Age
Geometry, Trigonometry, Scrolls
Saddles, Roads, and Triremes

Iron Weapons, Siege Engines, Small Cannons
Iron Armor, Horses, Water Wheels

Bleeding the Sick, Chemical Remedies
Printing Press, Canals, Cities





3

Medieval Age
Algebra, Books, Stirrups
Ocean going Sailing Ships

Steel Weapons, Early Firearms, Plate Armor
Large Cannons, Windmills, Heavy Horses

Crude Prosthetics, Anatomical Science
Kingdoms





4

Age of Sail
Calculus, Movable Type, Stagecoach
3-Masted Sailing Ships

Muskets, Horse Artillery, Naval Broadsides
Belt Drives, Clockwork

Optical Microscope and Nations





5

Industrial Revolution
Mechanical Calculators, Telegraph, Early Airships
Steam Locomotives, Early Submersibles

Repeating Small Arms, Rifled Cannons, Ironclads
Steam Engines, Direct Current, and Batteries

Germ theory of Disease, Safe Anesthetics,
Vaccines





6

Mechanized Age
Electric Calculators, Telephone, Radio, Cars
Railways, Oceal Liners, Submarines, Aircraft

Smokeless Powder, Automatic Guns, Tanks
Combat Aircraft, Alternating Current, Combustion

Antibiotics, Blood Typing, Safe Transfusions
Heredity, Biochemistry





7

Nuclear Age
Mainframe Computers, Television, Nuclear Submarines
Jet Aircraft, Manned Space Flight

Guided Munitions, Combat Jets, Nuclear Weapons
Ballistic Body Armor, Fission, Solar Power

Discovery of DNA, Organ Transplants, Pacemakers
Skyscrapers, Weather Prediction





8

Digital Age
(Humans)
Personal Computers, Global Networks, Satellite Nagivation
Single Stage to Orbit Spacecraft

Smart Guns, Lasers, Unmanned Combat Vehicles
Fuel Cells, Advanced Batteries

Genetically Modified Animals, Gene Therapy
Cloning, Discovery of Exoplanets







9

Microtech Age

Artificial Intelligence, Real-Time Virtuality, Robot Cars,
Manned Interplanetary Flight, Space Elevators

Electro Lasters, Combat Robots, Designer Viruses
Battle Suits, Micro Fuel Cells, Fusion

Human Genetic Engineering, Tissue Engineering,
Artificial Wombs, Cybernetic Implants, Orbital Settlements





10

Robotic Age

Nanotechnology, Fusion Rockets (10% Light Speed)

Compact Laser, Particle Beam, Gauss Guns, Nanoviruses
Nanotech Armor, Helium-3 Fusion

Brain Transplants, Bioroids
Undersea Cities





11

Terraforming Age

50% Light Speed Propulsion

Compact Particle Beam, Defensive Fusion
Portable Fusion Power

Living Machines, Cellular Regeneration,
Major Terraforming, Weather Control





12

Antimatter Age

Basic Alcubierre Drive (Light Speed)

Gamma Ray Lasers, Living Metal Armor,
Portable Antimatter Power

Full Body Regenertation
Complex Terraforming





13

FTL Age

Faster than Light Speed Drive
Reactionless Thrust, Antigravity, Transporters

Gravitic Weapons, Nuclear Dampers
Disintegrators, Force Fields, Shields

Clone Tanks, Psi Drugs,
Global Terraforming